Women's  Month is here: Let us all do something. Support Melinda Gates as she helps women better their lives.

Tax Exempt: From 2008 to date also has good standing with State of Hawaii

Please note our organization is Tax Exempt in the US 

The State of the City Event

L to R: Dr. Gilbert Githere (President:Honolulu Mombasa Sister), Mayor: Kirk Caldwell (Honolulu), and Ann Githere.
L to R: Dr. Gilbert Githere (President:Honolulu Mombasa Sister), Mayor: Kirk Caldwell (Honolulu), and Ann Githere.

(Left to Right) Dr. Gilbert Githere, President/Director: Honolulu Mombasa Sister City, Former Mayor of Honolulu Mr. Kirk Cadwell, Late Ann Githere passed on January 9, 2022.

Knowledge is power

Analysis: The Existence of Digital Objects


Gilbert Githere, Ph.D.

The Internet has changed the way people worldwide perceive objects and their meanings. According to Yuk Hui, in his book, The Existence of Digital Objects (2016), Yuk asserts postmodern Objects have different modes of existence and this depends on the different perceptions that the Objects are viewed from (Simondon, 2012).

The objects of today are not matter and form only. Computation has allowed objects to be made of meta data. Simply put, on the Internet, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is an object. This concept becomes clearer as we continue the analysis in this paper on the Existence of Digital 0bjects (Dreyfus, 1972; Haugeland, 1985; Hui, 2016).

This analysis will use Phenomenology (Phenomenotechnology) as the method of interpreting the available literature on the history of digital objects (Hui, 2016, Husserl, 1932).

The field of philosophy has opened up itself to the postmodern technologies that allow entities to be scrutinized in depth. For a long time, philosophers ignored the world of technology, especially when it related to machines ((Hui, 2016).

At the same time, the paper will borrow ideas from Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time (1976). In this famous piece, Heidegger grapples with existence in a very detailed manner.

Also, Heidegger’s lectures in Bremen and Freisburg greatly detailed the usefulness of a clay jug to further understand the deeper meaning behind the statement, “ready-at-hand,” as opposed to “present-at-hand.”

Heidegger (1994) explores the concept of humans and their mortality via the jug. The jug is made of clay from the earth, and the water used to soften the clay comes from the sky, as a result of chemical reactions that make up rain. Ultimately, the most important thing about the jug is the spiritual ritual of worshiping the deities (Heidegger, 1994).

According to Yuk Hui (2016), “The logical propositions that construct digital objects, presuppose relations as a foundation of their existence.”

Hui (2016) used the examples of Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) or Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). These are the opening prompts for creating webpages. These two prompts are objects like Uniform Resource Locator (URL), which Hui identified as the object.

The definition of hyper is super energetic, so when this word follows the word text, it means the text has huge energy and potency to transfer the information in the text. The word protocol means the official procedure of conducting an action. In the case of HTTP, it is the transfer of super energetic text (Smith, 1996; Hui, 2016; Berners-Lee, 1997; and Simondon, 2012).

Another action in webpage making is Extensible Markup Language (XML), and more specifically Extensible Markup Language Namespace (XMLNS)since this action relates to namespace. It is important to remember that the intentions of a webpage promotes the divide and rule protocol and it also operates on recursivity. This means the third-level synthesis of future anticipation is at work (Smith, 1996; Hui, 2016; and Simondon, 2012).

The webpage world is where things are made-present (Heideggerian: “make-present”). This is the opposite of “present-at- hand”; In Martin Heidegger’s book, Being and Time, make-at-hand is the equivalent of ready-at-hand, and this makes the existence of objects real.

The machine language and perception allow humans to enjoy future anticipation (tertiary protention). For example, humans tell Google to make coffee before one reaches for it (smart coffee maker). This demonstrates the element of future anticipation (Cantwell, 1996; Caputo, 1973).

All the aforementioned Artificial Intelligence technologies are made possible by algorithms, a thinking process by digital objects. In the digital world, making sense and the perception of qualitative data are not as important as synthesis of relations in the qualitative data.

Another very unique concept in the digital millieu is that present activities are fed by the future. According to Hui (2016), “Every retrieval recursively refers to present from the future.”

The digital objects are like human organs, which are linked to the brain, and they are also interconnected, which allows networking to be possible.

Specific tools help machines, including humans, communicate with each other are General Markup Language (GML) and Ontology Web Language (OWL). GML allows the deciphering of language and prefixes in the coded messages in the computer programs and OWL is like a human brain, which has the ability to abstract, pass inheritance, and encapsulation (Smith, 1996; Hui, 2016; Berners-Lee, 1997; Simondon, 2012).

These tools have these traits, universality, ability to be extended, and ability to exchange information.

It is obvious that the characteristics the computers are acquiring can be said that they closely related to human intelligence. In the computer world this trait is called Artificial Intelligence (AI). These abilities allow computer to communicate with each other through the World Wide Web(WWW), and this behavior allows the operation of the Internet(Cantwell, 1996; Hui, 2016, Berners-Lee, 1997; Simondon, 2012).

The Digital Objects trace their origin from the Leibniz binary statement 400 years ago; by using the power of 0 and 1, humans may solve mathematical problems of division and multiplication. In making this statement, Leibniz introduced the idea of the computer (McDowell, 1996; Weizenman, 1991).

Another important discovery that allowed the world of digital objects to start their early life is when the electric current traveled through vacuum. This meant electric signals carrying coded information could travel through space with the help of transmitters, from one point to the other.

The production of digital objects was made possible by the invention of extended GML for use in OWL. At the same time, various authorities in the sciences and philosophy fields started to envisage the idea that digital objects had a state of being. The big lingering question was the nature of the digital objects’ being, and determining the entities of their being (Simondon, 2012).

Ontologies and Ontology

The Ontologies deal with the nature of being. This paper will identify the ontology of digital objects.

The Ontology Web Language prepares a tag to search for a book title. For example, The Existence of Digital Objects the tag is formatted: (Cantwell, 2019; Hui, 2016).

It is important to note that the search uses symbols or, in general, the form and not the content or meaning. This is exactly what the John Searle’s Chinese Room Argument poses for those wanting to solve the riddle.

In Searle’s example, the computer program in this puzzle connected symbols in the Chinese language and syntactically joined them together to convey a message to the software decoder, and instantly the relevant information is given to the user (Haugeland, 1985).

The sequence of events is production, where the hardware represents the mind and the software is the thought (ideas), or process. The following logical sequence is the implementation of the coded messages, as formatted using the symbolic syntaxes feed. For example, 6uQbY3P4g4vhZ6zhsCLKV8Wfyf4 is from the algorithms of the coded information. This the equivalent of a normal hardcopy piece of mail, which moves from a sender to the receiver via the post office.

A simple illustration of this concept is a bride who is transported to the relevant destination using a carriage pulled by trained horse riders (Cantwell, 2019; Hui, 2016).

The computer program was arranged the symbols bride, carriage, horses and the riders. In this simple arrangement of the symbols, the logical representation was accomplished.

At this juncture, let us turn to digging deeper to determine whether digital objects really exist. The method of the search is Phenomenology, which is the ability to let things speak for themselves and tell the stories of the entities that demonstrate existence (Husserl, 1970).

The availability of electricity is at the heart of the existence of digital objects. The digital objects are mainly made up of different categories of electric voltage.

The circuits that conduct electricity in computer chips transmit different categories of electric voltage, which carry the information algorithmically coded and destined for the internet or the World Wide Web (WWW).

 In his book, The Critique of Pure Reason (1929), Immanuel Kent used logic as a tool to understand how humans acquire the knowledge of the objects around them or simply to understand the world they lived in.

Logic is a method used since the days of Plato to decipher the way humans acquired knowledge. At the same time, philosophers of that time also developed other tools to go with logic, and these included methods like Reason, which was key to accessing Depth of human knowledge.

Given reasonings, humans had to be rational when philosophizing about knowledge. They also had to use judgment to determine what was knowledge. This type of knowledge acquisition at times called for group work, and the experts of the day had to discuss and arrive at a consensus about the particular ideas posed in communal discourse and deemed as knowledge.

It is important at this point to link the idea of knowledge acquisition with the knowing the essences of the objects within the environment. Categorically, knowledge is not possible without the existence of objects (Cantwell,2019; Hui, 2016).

Therefore, the existence of digital objects will next be explored. Since time immemorial, humans have studied objects that surround them and help them survive in the environment. The philosophers have successfully separated thinking humans from the objects they studied. Descartes was the first philosopher to develop the idea that humans think, and this makes them what they are, and as a result, people became separate from other non-thinking creatures, and especially separate from objects.

Since the time of the great Greek philosophers - with leading thinkers like Plato, Aristotle and Socrates just to mention a few - philosophers have involved themselves with defining man and the rest of the universe.

These endeavors primarily entailed the idea that man was at the center of world activities. For example, Hegel the great German philosopher spent most of his life studying how man acquired consciousness of the objects around him. As stated earlier, Immanuel Kant did the same.

In the 17th Century, the Enlightenment started and science also came became important. Formal logic joined transcedental logic in defining and deciphering the human environment.

During the Industrial Revolution, man started using the cotton mill to process cotton in the Southern states. Machines joined the social milieu. Machines made man’s work easier, and steam engines helped the exploration and development of new economic frontiers (Cantwell, 2019; Hui, 2016).

Philosophers, specifically Western scholars, had not looked into the being of objects. Until Martin Heidegger, this subject was not thoroughly examined. In his book Being and Time, Heidegger discovered that being was greatly linked to existence. Humans struggled daily to survive in the environment.

Philosophers seldom explored the topics of machines and the being of objects, and technological philosophy had not been scrutinized. Martin Heidegger stated that the exploration of metaphysics had come to an end with the onset of cybernetics (digital objects).

In his book, Yuk Hui (2016) discussed machine intentions. If machines have any intentions, then their objects have existence, Hui posed. Edmund Husserl, the originator of Phenomenology as a foundation of the methodology for the study of Ontology, or the nature of existence, explored how intentions and experience are of paramount importance and also necessary for knowing the objects in human lives.

In his book, The Promise of Artificial Intelligence: Reckoning and Judgement (2016), Brian Cantwell Smith examined the ability of machines to have intentions. This ability is made possible by computational data, which is very much like human senses data, which produces the flux of consciousness in human cognition.

In this study, it is been established beyond doubt that derivativeness is the origin of computation. Also, derivative semantics is still considered real semantics. Therefore, machines have abilities to derive meaning from the packaged bits of different categories of voltages. These packages of voltages are loaded with codes; these algorithms are full of different information and messages (Dreyfus, 1972; Haugeland, 1985; Hui, 2016).

The uncertainty of knowledge is a subject that arises, for the reason that every term used in analyzing the terminologies depends on the perception of the individual, which is very much influenced by their professions. For example, a doctor world be very conversant with medical terms, and weak in anthropological terms.

The ability of derivativeness is so important to how computers interpret information. The information in question here is in the form of semantics, Ontology, or symbols representation, and syntactic.

When preparing computational data, the deriving forces also help identify the sense data in the algorithms coded into the computational messages; similarly, the derivative forces detect a flux of consciousness in the codes that pass through the electric voltages via the chips.

It is important to note that the artificial intelligence uses derivative abilities, and in the process, it picks up cognition, which helps a flux to appear and categorically create objective forms out of it.

Simply put, consider making a prosthetic limb with 3D software. For example, synthetic material to make an arm for an amputee requires the software, fed with codes all meant to inform the machine, to mix materials and make the limb. The computation flux categorically creates the arm due to the essence of derivative messages that are coded using algorithms, which flows freely in thousands of computer chips in the computational system in the form of hardware and software (Dreyfus, 1972; Haugeland, 1985; Hui, 2016).

In the aforementioned sequence, linkage is made between the metadata and metadata systems, which involves synthetic materials and chemicals required in the 3D printing. From this point, an object in the form of a prosthetic arm is produced (Hui, 2016)

In this analysis, the key is to identify the entities that prove digital objects exist. This is the same endeavor Martin Heidegger went through to prove being in humans. He had to examine the life of humans, and use phenomenology and hermeneutics to dig out the subtle tacit entities that make up being. In Being and Time (1962), Heidegger realizes the essence of being is all tied up in existence. Existence in Martin’s world is the humans’ struggle for survival as they negotiate life in the world.

In this piece, the struggle is almost the same, and the two experts that facilitate this endeavor are Smith Cantwell and Edmund Husserl. Cantwell uses reference as his route to get to the entities that can be identified as digital objects. Computer scientists and machines have to recognize that ontology is the dynamics of representation.

The existence of digital objects is dynamics of representation, which is simply bundles or categories of coded information put together with the help of algorithms (Cantwell, 2016).

The bundles of voltages travel through a huge array of electronic chips, each with specific assignment in a computer system. As mentioned earlier, the assignment could simply be a 3D printing of a prosthetic limb for a human being.

The representation phenomena brought Edmund Husserl and Smith Cantwell closer to how they view the existence of digital objects. The programmers who make computer software have intentions for how these programs should perform, and at the same time, they have existence, meaning they perform activities meant to give them a livelihood or allow them to survive in their environments. Similarly in the software they create, they impart in them a sense of existence in their electronic milieu (Christof, 2021; Haugeland, 1985; Hui, 2016).

“Experience is in unexpected places, including in all animals, large and small, and perhaps even in brute matter itself. But consciousness is not in digital computers running software, even when they speak in tongues. Ever-more powerful machines will trade in fake consciousness, which will, perhaps, fool most. But precisely because of the looming confrontation between natural, evolved and artificial, engineered intelligence, it is absolutely essential to assert the central role of feeling to a lived life (Christof Koch, 2021).”

Panpsychism is a doctirine or belief that everything material, however small, has an element of individual consciousness. This belief asserts that the soul is in everything material. For example, Koch singles out an atom as having consciousness, and other things that have consciousness includes fields, strings, etc. These physical mechanisms are all made out of conscious parts.

In Consciencism (1964), Kwame Nkrumah perpetuated the idea that matter has consciousness. Koch also agreed with Nkrumah about the ability of matter to have consciousness.

Matter has intrinsic causal powers, and matter with more than zero power is said to have power to experience.

At this juncture, it is appropriate to introduce digital objects that influence daily living, such as defibrillators and bitcoins (Cantwell, 1996; Hui, 2016; Berners-Lee, 1997; Simondon, 2012). The following examples include:

• Defibrillator: an apparatus used to control heart fibrillation by application of an electric current to the chest wall or heart. This is hardware, a medical device implanted in a patient; the debrillator shocks the heart into its proper rhythm when the heart fails to beat.

• Bitcoin mining is the process of creating new bitcoin by solving puzzles. It consists of computing systems equipped with specialized chips competing to solve mathematical puzzles. The first Bitcoin miner, as these systems are called, to solve the puzzle is rewarded with bitcoin. The mining process also confirms transactions on the cryptocurrency’s network and makes them trustworthy.

Ready at-Hand (hammer) and Present-at-Hand

Representation is what drives the world of digital objects, and it is achieved through the concepts of individualization, which simply means categorization of items into a specific group or groups. The other concept in representation is individuation, which is the categorization of things according to the entities solely assigned to them (Smith, 1996; Hui, 2016; Berners-Lee, 1997; Simondon, 2012).

The computer on the table is an example of digital object, but an image on the screen of the computer is a digital object that doesn’t occupy any space althoughit could be printed into a 3D item.

When you erase digital objects or images of them on a computer screen, they disappear completely; for example, the digital objects might be infested by the bugs.

Reduction and intentionality of the objects are considered as existing in the world. Husserl posited intentionality as being within the horizon, and at the same time, it is a driving force of experiencing. For example, one must decipher the objects around them. The idea of being and deciphering is not a human endeavor; it it is considered and revered as a Supreme entity.

In Martin Heidegger’s Being and Time (1962), being can be understood deeply by reduction of it into its basic entities if one is to understand the objects in the world.

Heidegger singled out the importance of deciphering objects entails analyzing the nature of being of whatever one is examining. The nature of being when used properly helps one to know what is in front of him.

Heidegger noted the importance of existence and understanding the nature of being brings representation to things in the environment. To study the objects’ representation, he studies their significations and their signs.

The signification and sign are only possible when objects acquire a status of ready-to-hand. For example, a man uses a hammer and knows all of its uses. When the man uses the hammer, it is almost a reflex action, whereby one just hammers nails without thinking about it. It is such a reflex action that one might be thinking of making lunch as he hammers nails into the wood (Heidegger, 1964).

In the act of ready-to-hand, there is the idea of totality of reference. Simply put, in the case of a hammer, there is a reference of the nail being hammered into the wood that forms a table.

Internet objects in this paper being referred to as digital objects will be able to express their existence through Heidegger’s idea of reference. The digital objects spatially are not as defined as the physical objects whose spaces are visible and physical

A good example is the 3D production of a prosthetic limb, or an arm, for an amputee. The computer program that produces the prosthetic arm will link codes using software such that the information travels through the computer hardware using references (Cantwell, 1996; Hui, 2016; Berners-Lee, 1997; Simondon, 2012).

For example, the synthetic material is poured into a mold, in the shape of the client’s arm.

Husserl used phenomenology, or the essence of letting things speak for themselves. This occurs through cognition, knowing and understanding of objects through thought, experience and sense (Husserl, 1932).

In computer programing, the first order of probability calculus, Gottlob Frege developed formulas that reference the codes, using specific algorithms to perform some specific actions with the intentions of achieving some specific results (Carnap, 1947, 1978).

Thus far, this has been a thorough exploration of what Western philosophers have stated about the existence of objects around them.

Now consider Greek philosophers like Plato, Socrates and Aristotle. For example, Aristotle wrote about objects as they are related to categories (quality, quantity, substance, relations “reference-reciprocity, spontaneity,” place, time, posture, state, action, undergoing, opposition, priority, simultaneity, simultaneously, and having). Then consider Rene Descartes and idealism, whereby the body, mind and objects are entities of ideas that came from external forces and manifested themselves as things in the minds (Rorty, 1979).

During the Enlightenment, philosophers like Immanuel Kant continued to decipher the world of objects as they pertained to humans. In his famous book The Critique of Pure Reason, Kant looked at objects through the acquisition of knowledge by man (Kant, 1927).

After Kant, objects for Hegel (1900) were the center of human consciousness. Without objects, there was no possibility of having knowledge.

With being-in-the-world as the foundation of all discourse, relation (form) is a subset of reference. These facts are were not discussed by philosophers, just as being had not been examined fully until Heidegger.

Is relation a substance that is another thing which no philosopher had explained? For example, does substance exist independently? Similarly, was it a real thing by itself?

There are three types of relations: psychological relations, identical relations and causal relations.

Aristotle noted that philosophers had to tackle this question regarding the existence of relations.

Why are relations so important in the world of Artificial Intelligence or Computation? The simple answer is that the existence of coded information that makes computation possible is an accident of essence.

 The bundles of electric voltages, carrying coded information, travel or are relayed through different computer chips. The relation of these bundles has to be there, and the computer software must make this clear to the computer systems.

Hui, who relied on Simondon and Heidegger’s work, helped us realize the existence of digital objects. Relation is a mode of being for Simondon and Heidegger, and as such, it can be brought closer to substance. Relation is also a predicate of substances.

Heidegger identified the existence of discursive relations, and pointed to an essence of formalization and its entity of temporary existence. Similarly, Simondon identified his own definition of relationship, which he called existential relations. These relations exist in two modes, known as individuation and individualization (Smith, 1996; Hui, 2016; Berners-Lee, 1997; Simondon, 2012).

Individuation is the ability to distinguish and single out self from others of the same kind. This ability is so essential when it comes to computation, the ability of algorithms to give commands to specific individuals.

The same thing is true of formalization, which allows the form and structure of computated commands to be executed specifically to attain some specific results.

The core issue of this analysis was simply to try and see if digital objects exist. First, the investigator examined what philosophers identified as entities that make up objects.

While still on this subject on the existence of digital objects, it is also important note what they said about substance. Substance is a thing that David Hume, the famous British philosopher, associates with passions and emotions. He arrives at this conclusion by way of impressions of objects in the mind, where they live in perception and reflection. Impressions are defined by Hume as the immediate existence of things. For example, Hume listed the following as reflections: sadness, passion and hunger.

Hume perpetuated the philosophy of association, and in doing so, he began linking relations as associations. At the same time, Hume said substances are a collection of qualities found in objects.

In this analysis, arguments from different philosophers, especially those of Guilles Deleuze, have arrived at a definition of substance as being a collection of all properties. Also, substance can be considered being a fiction that presupposes relations. Additionally, when a property of a substance is isolated, what is observed is abstractions and simple ideas, and thus proves the notion these are entities that make objects real in our minds.

At this point, the importance of language and the subject of relations should be considered (Rorty, 1979). Relationship is at the center of the world of computation, and at the same time, there cannot be relationship if it not for language as a discursive tool (Hui, 2016).

The subject of mathematics is made possible by language. Gottlob Frege in his analysis of mathematical formulas, for example, the First Order of Probability Calculus.

This shows how language helps develop different commands, which assists computer programs to function the way they do, especially when it comes to applications of “If formulas.” Hui calls this action the ability to make relational Calculus able to manipulate relational database.

Relationship can be elaborated clearly by looking at a tree. For example, a tree reproduces itself. Next, the tree utilizes the environment to give itself nutrition and survive to perpetuate itself. Lastly, the tree’s parts are able to synchronize their activities such that they facilitate the survival of all the parts, and the whole tree thrives.

The importance of relations begs respect when one looks at what Edgar F. Codd writes about relations in contrast to the early works of Charles Bachman.

The Tuple relational and Domain relational have become the best methods for computation. The data is independent from the hardware, the storage of data in servers is possible, and it is easy to navigate the computer networks.

The top--bottom model of Bachman is hard to service, and there is a lack of independence in the different components of the system.

Relations as described in the aforementioned paragraphs allow machines to stand between language, (coded information) and relations (The First Order of Predicate Calculus). For example, when searching for the phrase “philosopher Martin Heidegger,” the Extended Markup Language (XML) allows the relationship between indexes, names professions, are used in the search. Similarly, other tips using language coding, for example, date of birth, in the main search of the phrase “Martin Heidegger,” the system may include other philosophers in its search (Cantwell, 2019).

Another method of data extraction is the use of metadata. The metadata are machine compliance, which is user friendly, when it comes to computer operations.

They are used in Semantic Web; this means it is easy to decipher information coded using language. It is good to remember the words of Hegel in his book, Phenomenology of Spirit, that there is no language if objects are not there.

A sample of metadata formula using Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP);

xmlns:rdfs=‘http://www.w3.org/2000/02/rdf-schema#’ (Hui, 2016).

In digital objects, content is a form used for making resources for making different relationships in computation.

Consider the meta language used in the prior paragraph. To start with, RDF means Resource Definition Framework. Immediately, this command takes care of the content that is fed into the system (Dreyfus, 1972; Haugeland, 1985; Hui, 2016).

Following this first command is XMLNS and this can be expounded as Extended Markup Language Name and Space. This command is very broad; just by having the word Extended, this allowed broad instructions to be performed by the algorithms, given the Markups were sensed. Lastly, NS mean name and space.

The command shown above uses the equal (=) sign to tell Resource Definition Framework plus Extended Markup Language Name Space to go through Hypertext Transfer Protocol (http), and search for the names.

This name search is going to take place in the World Wide Web, and the emphasis is going to be on organizations. This particular search is going to be from Feb. 1, 1999.

The command also includes the idea that the instructions to be acted on must be made up of sentences that are a complete sense.

According to Berners-Lee (1997), “In the OWL documentary of W3C, there is already a relation called ‘different from,’ which concerns the negation of identities. This is not a coincidence but rather confirms that all logical propositions that construct the digital object already presuppose relations as the foundation of their existence.”

Concretization and materialization of relations allows there to be another Being-in-the World. This seems to be an answer to the question of whether digital objects exist. The answer is yes, but more facts and figures need to be examined in the world of philosophers and other experts (Simondon, 1991).Ontology: A set of concepts and categories in a subject area or domain that shows their properties and the relations between them.

The existence of digital objects is deciphered using ontology, and this means looking in detail at their concepts and categories, which helps an analysis reveal their properties and the relations.

In the aforementioned paragraphs, the relations of information entered or programmed into computer software, using different algorithms, are able to perform due to the phenomenology of relations, relevance, order of magnitudes, etc. (Cantwell, 1996; Hui, 2016; Berners-Lee, 1997; Simondon, 2012).

Martin Heidegger is identified as one of the philosophers who wrote about relations through his talks following World War II. These talks are titled as “Bremen and Freisburg Lectures: Insight Into That Which Is and Basic Principles of Thinking” (1994). In this masterpiece, Heidegger contemplated a jug made out of clay, a material of the earth. At the same time, the jug is also made for the purpose of holding wine to offer the Holy Sacrament in church.

The jug is for serving the Supreme Being, meaning the divine being is involved in the reasons for why the potter decides to make a jug.

This situation elaborates upon the relationships between different things brought together to make the jug. The water, which is used to make the clay, comes from the rain, and rain is formed from different elements of the atmosphere, whereby small water particles join together; this action involves changes in temperatures in the atmosphere (Heidegger, 1962).

The jug also is made due to the cultural beliefs of the people, who believe in a Supreme Being. This deity, which people revere, is worshipped in a certain way that a jug is needed to hold the Holy Wine. For the wine to occupy the inside of the Jug, the wine has to replace the air and therefore, the emptiness of the jug.

“Heidegger shows that thingness can only be thought in terms of relations pertinent to its milieu; there is no longer objectivity as such but rather interobjectivity (Hui, 2016).”

Interconnectivity is a phenomenon that can materialize through relationship and nothing else, and it doesn’t only have to be physical; it can also be through abstraction, a mind thing.

According to Hui (2016), “The technical system evolves according to its own logic as if it has a kind of existence in itself).”

Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a digital object. This is like a piece of wood for an artist, who sees a statue in a piece of wood.

This paper showed how digital objects exist in our world, especially in the Artificial Intelligence world.

In conclusion, this paper demonstrated that digital objects are a variable of language.

This is brought out in the aforementioned paragraphs, but the Uniform Resource Locator (URL), is the one which made this point very clear. The “Existence of Digital Objects” is there in the commands given to the computer system, or the input commands.

This is the labor equivalent of human muscles, when it comes to the performance of work. The algorithms which are used to conjure the commands are similar to the mind in a human body, which is comprised of the nervous system that operates the body parts, including the hands when it comes to doing some work.

One very important aspect of the digital objects world is they all work as relatives, and relations are essential for their existence. Without relations, there would never be digital objects that work efficiently in the Artificial Intelligence world.


Alesso, H. P. & Smith, C. F. Thinking on the web: Berners-Lee, Godel and Turing. Wiley Interscience.

Aristotle (1991). Categories in complete works of Aristotle, (J. Barnes, Ed.). Princeton University Press.

Berners-Lee, Tim (1997, January 6). Axioms of Web Architecture: Metadata. W3C. https://www.w3.org/Designissues/Metadata.html.

Brooks, R. (1991). “Intelligence without reason, MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Memo 1293 (14)

Caputo, J. (1973). “Language, Logic and Time: Heidegger’s Fruhe Schriften.” Research in Phenomenology 3, 147-56.

Cantwell, S. B. (1996). On the origin of objects. MIT Press.

Carnap, R. (1947). Meaning and necessity. Chicago Press.

Carnap, R. (1978). The overcoming of metaphysics through logical analysis of language. In Heidegger and Modern Philosophy: Critical Essays (M. Murray, Ed.). Yale University Press.

Descartes, R. (1975). Meditations on first philosophy. (trans. Haldane. E. & Ross, G.R.T). The Philosophical Works of Descartes, Cambridge University Press. Vol. I, pp. 144-57.

Dreyfus, H. (1972). What computers can’t do: A critique of artificial reason. Harper & Row.

Dummett, M. (1973). Frege: Philosophy of language. Harper Row.

Dummett, M. (1975). What is a theory of meaning? In mind and language (S. Guttenplan, Ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Dummett, M. (1978). Truth and other enigmas. Harvard University Press.

Haugeland, J. (1985). Artificial intelligence: The very idea. MIT Press.

Hegel, G. W. F. (1900). The philosophy of history. Batoche Books.

Hegel, G. W. F. (1977). Phenomenology of Spirit. Trans. A.V. Miller. Oxford University Press.

Heidegger, M. (1962). Being and Time J. Macquarrie & E. Robinson, Trans) SCM Press.

Heidegger, M. (1971). Poetry, language and thought. Harper & Row.

Heidegger, M. (1994). Bremen and Freisburg Lectures. Trans. Andrew Mitchell, Indiana University Press.

Hersey, P. (1984). The situational leadership. Warner Books, Inc.

Hountondji, P. (1983). “Reason and tradition.” In Philosophy and Cutures, O. Oruka, ed. Nairobi: Bookwise Limited.

Hui, Y. (2016). On the existence of digital objects. University of Minnesota Press.

Hume, D. (1738). A treatis of human nature: Being an attempt to introduce the experimental method of reasoning into moral subject.

Husserl, E. (1970). The crisis of European sciences and transcendental phenomenology. Northwestern University Press.Idoniboye, D. E. (1973). The Idea of African philosophy: The concept of spirit in African metaphysics. Second Order 2 (1).

Kant, I. (1929). Critique of pure reason. (N.K. Smith, Ed.). St. Martin Press.

Kripke, S. A. (1982). Wittgenstein on rules and private language. Harvard University Press.

Kuhn, T. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. University of Chicago Press.

Leibniz, G. W. (2010). De Progressione Dyadica (Le systems de numerator bonaire, 15 Mars 1679) (V. Serra, Trans). https://www.bibnum.education.fr/calculinformatique/calcul/de-la-numeration-binaire

McDowell, J. (1996). Mind and World. Harvard University Press.

Nkrumah, K. (1964). Consciencism: Philosophy and ideology for de-colonization. Monthly Review Press.

Putnam, H. (1981). Truth and history. Cambridge University Press.

Quine, W. V. O. (1951). Two dogmas empiricism. The Philosophical Review. Reprinted pp. 20-46 in from a Logical Point of View. Harvard University Press.

Quine, W. V. O. (1990). Pursuit of truth. Harvard University Press.

Searle, J. R. (1983). Intentionality. Cambridge University Press.

Searle, J. R. (1998). Mind, language and society: Philosophy in the real world. Basic Books.

Sellars, W. (1963). Science, perception, and reality. Routledge Kegan & Paul.

Simondon, G. (1980). On the mode of existence of technical objects. University of Western Ontario.

Simondon, G. (2012). Du mode d’existence des objects techniques. Aubier.

Smith, B. C. (1991). The OWL and the Electric Encyclopedia. Artificial Intelligence, 47(1-3), 251-288.

Smith, B. C. (1996). On the origins of objects. MIT Press.

Weizenbaum, J. (1996). Computer power & human reason: From judge to calculation. W. H. Freeman & Company.